Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. K. Balachander's Kavithalayaa Productions opened its films with the very first couplet of the Kural sung in the background. February 18, 2017 - Saturday, 3.30pm - 7 pm, Power shutdown areas in Chennai Today (30.12.2020), Delay in the opening of the north line of the Chennai Metro Rail, Alarm - UK Returnee from Chennai tests positive for New Covid-19 Variant! [1][5][6] Considered one of the greatest works on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and secular nature. Secondly, Confucius did not deal with the subject of conjugal love, for which Valluvar devoted an entire division in his work. Zvelebil states that an additional few have uncertain etymology and that future studies may prove those to be Dravidian. [174], Scholars compare the teachings in the Tirukkural with those in other ancient thoughts such as the Confucian sayings in Lun Yu, Hitopadesa, Panchatantra, Manusmriti, Tirumandiram, Book of Proverbs in the Bible, sayings of the Buddha in Dhammapada, and the ethical works of Persian origin such as Gulistan and Bustan, in addition to the holy books of various religions. For example, S. R. Ranganathan, a librarian of University of Madras during the British rule, discovered a Malayalam translation copied in year 777 of the Malayalam calendar, a manuscript that Zvelebil dates to late 16th century. [37], Various claims have been made regarding Valluvar's family background and occupation in the colonial era literature, all inferred from selective sections of his text or hagiographies published since the colonial era started in Tamil Nadu. [202] The temple was extensively renovated in the 1970s. [123] According to Norman Cutler, Parimelalhagar's commentary interprets and maneuvers the Kural text within his own context, grounded in the concepts and theological premises of Hinduism. ", Valluvar shrines and monuments styled after Hindu temples are found in various parts of Tamil Nadu. For example, the Prabandhas such as the Tiruvalluvamalai probably from the 10th century CE are anthologies on Tirukkural, and these extensively quote and embed it verses written in meters ascribed to gods, goddesses, and revered Tamil scholars. (n.d.). [44][d], Valluvar is thought to have belonged to either Jainism or Hinduism. Take Part by Spreading Goodness. Of these at least 277 scholars have written commentaries for the entire work. [158][159] Navalar, states Zvelebil, was "probably the greatest and most influential among the forerunners" in studying numerous versions and bringing out an edited split-sandhi version for the scholarship of the Kurral and many other historic Tamil texts in the 19th-century. The Latin translation by the Christian missionary Father Beshi, for instance, contains several such mistranslations. Téléchargement mp3 gratuit S009 Uyar Valluvam Mp4 Télécharger une chanson S009 Uyar Valluvam Mp4 et écouter une collection de chansons S009 Uyar Valluvam Mp4 Dernier MP3 gratuit et facile à apprécier et album complet. [1] While the text extols the virtue of non-violence, it also dedicates many of 700 poruḷ couplets to various aspects of statecraft and warfare in a manner similar to the Hindu text Arthasastra. [160] In 1850, the Kural was published with commentaries by Vedagiri Mudaliar, who published a revised version later in 1853. Not Coveting Another's Wife (, Chapter 19. If you like the kind of work we are doing and want to be a part of it, please reach out to us. [122], The best known and influential historic commentary on the Kural text is the Parimelalhakiyar virutti. [216] The work is commonly quoted in vegetarian conferences, both in India and abroad. [88] Valluvar also recommends forts and other infrastructure, supplies and food storage in preparation for siege. The work is highly cherished in the Tamil culture, as reflected by its nine different traditional titles: Thirukkuṛaḷ (the sacred kural), Uttaravedam (the ultimate Veda), Thiruvalluvar (eponymous with the author), Poyyamoli (the falseless word), Vayurai valttu (truthful praise), Teyvanul (the divine book), Potumarai (the common Veda), Muppal (the three-fold path), and Tamilmarai (the Tamil Veda). The temple shikhara (spire) above the sanctum shows scenes of Hindu life and deities, along with Valluvar reading his couplets to his wife. "[180], Jesuit, Catholic and Protestant missionaries in colonial-era South India have highly praised the text, many of whom went on to translate the text into European languages. Télécharger S009 Uyar Valluvam Mp4 chanson mp3 maintenant! [citation needed] As of 2013, Perimelalhagar's commentary appeared in more than 200 editions by as many as 30 publishers. [135] The text was translated into several European languages during the colonial era, particularly by the Christian missionaries. [166] The text is a part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, yet it is also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition", as a few of his verses are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses in Sanskrit classics. A list of all the works by Shri Adi Shankaracharya is given below. For example, the term Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words thiru and kuṛaḷ. "[180], The Kural has historically been exalted by leaders of political, spiritual, social and virtually every other domain. A Valluvar statue in yoga position holding a palm leaf manuscript of Tirukurral sits under the tree. Uyar Valluvam - Class 42. [133][137], The first, and incomplete, English translations were made by N. E. Kindersley in 1794 and then by Francis Whyte Ellis in 1812. 007 Uyar Valluvam Thirukkural- கடவுள் வாழ்த்து-4 (Kadavul Vazhthu-4) 320 Kbps 380.9 MB 2:42:31 54602 Uploader: Karka Kasadara Trust -karka dot in DOWNLOAD PLAY. Netra Chakra 8. Free Download தம ழ த த ய வ ழ த த Tamil Thaai Vazhthu Thamizh Thaai Vaazhthu தம ழ த த ய வ ழ த த ப டல MP3, Size: 1.67 MB, Duration: 1 minute and 16 seconds, Bitrate: 192 Kbps. [124], Besides the ten medieval commentaries, there are at least three more commentaries written by unknown medieval authors. In Valluvar's theory of state, unlike Kautilya, the army (patai) is the most important element. "[231] This is recommended by the Bhagavad Gita as well, which discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism, namely, enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism, and this synthetic answer of the Gita recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. [26] According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition" as a few of the verses in the Kural text are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses of earlier Indian texts. Mobile: +91 9445543442; Email: trust@karka.in; Register Now; The depths of first kural. The text has been translated into at least 40 Indian and non-Indian languages, making it one of the most translated ancient works. No. The first available French version was by E. S. Ariel in 1848. ... View Details → 31 March. [74] According to Zvelebil, the text does not feature "true and great poetry" throughout the work, except, notably, in the third book, which deals with love and pleasure. [76] Valluvar extols rain next only to God for it provides food and serves as the basis of a stable economic life by aiding in agriculture, which Valluvar asserts as the most important economic activity later in Book II of the Kural text. M.M. "[9][10] It emphasizes non-violence and moral vegetarianism as virtues for an individual. [213] In Kamba Ramayanam, poet Kambar has used Kural thoughts in as many as 600 instances. [28] According to Blackburn, the "current scholarly consensus" dates the text and the author to approximately 500 CE. [23][24], In 1959, S. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work to around or after the 6th century CE. A few of these relied on re-translating the earlier English translations of the work. Valluvar recommends that a well kept and well-trained army (patai) led by an able commander and ready to go to war is necessary for a state. Register With Us. Declaration of Love's Excellence (, Chapter 114. [62] Thus, wealth and pleasure must be pursued with an "action with renunciation" (Nishkam Karma), that is, one must act without craving in order to resolve this tension. [156] The work has been continuously in print ever since. [123] Along with the Kural text, this commentary has been widely published and is in itself a Tamil classic. [175], The Kural text and the Confucian sayings recorded in the classic Analects of Chinese (called Lun Yu, meaning "Sacred Sayings") share some similarities. [9] S. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" (a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers) and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". ", "The greatest virtue of all is non-killing; truthfulness cometh only next. 1. The scholars who believe this tradition, such as Somasundara Bharathiar and M. Rajamanickam, date the text to as early as 300 BCE. [88], The greatest of personal virtues according to the Kural text is non-killing, followed by veracity,[89][90][91] and the two greatest sins that Valluvar feels very strongly are ingratitude and meat-eating. The term Tirukkural is a compound word made of two individual terms, tiru and kural.Tiru is an honorific Tamil term that corresponds to the universally Indian, Sanskrit term sri meaning "holy, sacred, excellent, honorable, and beautiful." [11][97][98], According to Kaushik Roy, the Kural text in substance is a classic on realism and pragmatism, and it is not a mystic, purely philosophical document. [8] According to Kamil Zvelebil, a Czech scholar of Tamil literature, these early dates such as 300 BCE to 1 BCE are unacceptable and not supported by evidence within the text. The Tirukkural (திருக்குறள், literally Sacred Verses), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil language text consisting of 1,330 short couplets of seven words each, or kurals. Dhandapani Desikar You all might have heard the song "Thunbam nergaiyil" by Bharathidhasan rendered by many artists in Desh Raagam. Uyar Valluvam - Class 43 . "[222], a. [207][208] The tallest of these is the 41-metre (133 ft) stone statue of Valluvar erected in 2000 atop a small island in the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean. [35] The Kural text itself does not name its author. The whole of human aspiration is epitomized in this immortal book, a book for all ages. [225], b. "[147] Zvelebil claims that it is impossible to truly appreciate the maxims found in the Kural couplets through a translation but rather that the Kural has to be read and understood in its original Tamil form. "[66] Within the chapter-structure, the couplets acquire their structural meaning and reveal the more complete teaching of the author. [184] It soon became a popular and the standard portrait of the poet. If you like the kind of work we are doing and want to be a part of it, please reach out to us. However, the subdivisions beyond these three, known as iyals, as found in some surviving manuscripts and commentaries, are likely later additions because there are variations between these subtitles found in manuscripts and those in historical commentaries. [9] In a manner similar to speculations of the author's biography, there has been much speculation about his religion with no historical evidence. [157], The first critical edition of the Tirukkaral based on manuscripts discovered in Hindu monasteries and private collections was published in 1861 by Arumuka Navalar – the Jaffna born Tamil scholar and Shaivism activist. Uyar Valluvam - Class 41. [66] In terms of structural flow, the text journeys the reader from "the imperfect, incomplete" state of man implicit in the early chapters to the "physically, morally, intellectually and emotionally perfect" state of man living as a husband and citizen, states Zvelebil. [220] On 26 April 2016, the Madras High Court directed the state government to include all the 108 chapters of the Books of Aram and Porul of the Kural text in school syllabus for classes VI through XII from the academic year 2017–2018 "to build a nation with moral values. திருக்குறள் ஒரு தேசிய நூல் [Tirukkural: A National Book] (Pub. Northeast monsoon season intensifies: Heavy rains to persist for 2 days! It contained the original Tamil text of the Kural, Parimelalhagar's commentary, Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary and Drew's English prose translation. [65][68], According to Zvelebil, the content of the Kural text is "undoubtedly patterned" and "very carefully structured. Maharishi Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School, Chetpet. [88], According to Hajela, the Porul of the Kural text is based on morality and benevolence as its cornerstones. The alleged low birth, high birth and being a pariah in the traditional accounts are also doubtful. [152] It was only in 1835 that Indians were permitted to establish printing press. Cricketer Robin Uthappa & Lenovo Indias Rahul Agarwal launch 1901st Yuva Unstoppable School 04/Dec/2020 5:03:21 PM. Take Part by Spreading Goodness. [62] The Indian tradition also holds that there exists an inherent tension between artha and kama. [164][165], Some of the teachings in the Tirukkuṛaḷ, states Zvelebil, are "undoubtedly" based on the then extant Sanskrit works such as the more ancient Arthashastra and Manusmriti (also called the Manavadharmasastra). [156] In 1917, Manakkudavar's commentary for the first book of the Kural text was published by V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. [49] An army has a duty to kill in battle, and a king must execute criminals for justice. [171], The Thirukkural teachings are similar to those found in Arthasastra but differ in some important aspects. It was written by Parimelalhagar – a Vaishnava Brahmin, likely based in Kanchipuram, who lived about or before 1272 CE. 4:45 pm to 8:30 pm. All are welcome! Pleasures of Temporary Variance (, Chapters 39–63: Royalty, the qualities of the leader of men, Chapters 64–73: The subject and the ruler, Chapters 74–96: Essential parts of state, shrewdness in public life, Chapters 97–108: Reaching perfection in social life. The 19th-century Christian missionary George Uglow Pope, for example, claimed that Valluvar must have lived in the 9th century CE, come in contact with Christian teachers such as Pantaenus of Alexandria, imbibed Christian ideas and peculiarities of Alexandrian teachers and then wrote the "wonderful Kurral" with an "echo of the 'Sermon of the Mount'. [Valluvar obtained after a 30-year penance]", "Teach Thirukkural in schools to build a Nation with Moral Values, Madras HC tells Govt", "The Golden coin depicting Thiruvalluvar -2", "A Letter to A Hindu: The Subjection of India—Its Cause and Cure", https://vallalars.blogspot.in/2017/05/thirukkural-thathuva-yoga-gnayna-urai.html, Tirukkural: Work by Tiruvalluvar from Encyclopaedia Britannica, G. U. Pope's English Translation of the Tirukkural, Sarvajna and Tiruvalluvar statues installation, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty, Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes, Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian, Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tirukkuṟaḷ&oldid=996099598, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1812 (first known printed edition, older palm-leaf manuscripts exist), Chapter 3. The works of Dharumar, Dhaamatthar, and Nacchar are only partially available. 6:00 PM to 8:30 PM. [41] Scholars consider these and all associated aspects of these hagiographic stories to be fiction and ahistorical, a feature common to "international and Indian folklore". [180] The Russian philosopher Alexander Piatigorsky called it chef d'oeuvre of both Indian and world literature "due not only to the great artistic merits of the work but also to the lofty humane ideas permeating it which are equally precious to the people all over the world, of all periods and countries. l. ^ The original inscription in Tamil written in the asiriyapa metre and first-person perspective: (The kural couplet he quotes is in italics)[240] சயங்கொண்ட தொண்டிய சாணுறு நாடெனும் | ஆழியில் இழைத்த வழகுறு மாமணி | குணகடன் முதலாக குட கடலளவு | நெடுநிலம் தாழ நிமிர்ந்திடு சென்னப் | பட்டணத்து எல்லீசன் என்பவன் யானே | பண்டாரகாரிய பாரம் சுமக்கையில் | புலவர்கள் பெருமான் மயிலையம் பதியான் | தெய்வப் புலமைத் திருவள்ளுவனார் | திருக்குறள் தன்னில் திருவுளம் பற்றிய் | இருபுனலும் வாய்த்த மலையும் வருபுனலும் | வல்லரணும் நாட்டிற் குறுப்பு | என்பதின் பொருளை என்னுள் ஆய்ந்து | ஸ்வஸ்திஸ்ரீ சாலிவாகன சகாப்த வரு | ..றாச் செல்லா நின்ற | இங்கிலிசு வரு 1818ம் ஆண்டில் | பிரபவாதி வருக்கு மேற் செல்லா நின்ற | பஹுதான்ய வரு த்தில் வார திதி | நக்ஷத்திர யோக கரணம் பார்த்து | சுப திநத்தி லிதனோ டிருபத்தேழு | துரவு கண்டு புண்ணியாஹவாசநம் | பண்ணுவித்தேன். [66] In isolation, a couplet is "a perfect form, possessing, in varying degree, the prosodic and rhetoric qualities of gnomic poetry. [145] This form, which Zvelebil calls "a marvel of brevity and condensation," is closely connected with the structural properties of the Tamil language and has historically presented extreme difficulties to its translators. [65] The division into three parts (muppāl) is probably the author's work. [143] The work has also been translated into Vaagri Booli, the language of the Narikuravas, a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, by Kittu Sironmani. [176] While ahimsa remains the fundamental virtue of the Valluvarean tradition, Zen remains the central theme in Confucian tradition. [226], c. ^ The Valluvar Year is obtained by adding 31 years to the present Gregorian year. There were at least ten medieval commentaries of which only six have survived into the modern era. [85] Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers. In the long inscription Ellis praises Valluvar and uses a couplet from the Tirukkural to explain his actions during the drought. [36] The name Thiruvalluvar was first mentioned in the later era text Tiruvalluva Maalai, a Shaivite Hindu text also of unclear date. Acting after Right Consideration (, Chapter 70. [87] In the 700 couplets on poruḷ (53 percent of the text), Valluvar mostly discusses statecraft and warfare. This is Karka Kasadara's flagship initiative aimed at making the virtue (aram) inherent in Thirukkural into a lifestyle of as many people as possible in the world. The first claim of Valluvar as an authority appears in a 16th-century Jain text. Throughout the work, Valluvar is more considerate about the substance than the linguistic appeal of his writing. [141] The first complete English translation of the Kural was the one by the Christian missionary George Uglow Pope in 1886, which introduced the complete Kural to the western world. Singers who have performed full-fledged Tirukkural concerts include M. M. Dandapani Desikar and Chidambaram C. S. ", "The sceptre of the king is the firm support of the Vedas of the Brahmin, and of all virtues therein described. [52], The author is remembered and cherished for his universal secular values, and his treatise has been called Ulaga Podhu Marai (the universal scripture). While Kindersley translated a selection of the Kural text, Ellis translated 120 couplets in all—69 of them in verse and 51 in prose. [212], Kural is an oft-quoted Tamil work. He theorizes that Valluvar was probably "a learned Jain with eclectic leanings", who was well acquainted with the earlier Tamil literature and also had knowledge of the Sanskrit texts. [8][29][30] On 18 January 1935, the Valluvar Year was added to the calendar. Vasu Chakra 7 Senavati S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N1 43 Gavambodhi S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N1 8 Hanumatodi S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 44 Bhavapriya S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N2 9 Dhenuka S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N3 45 Subhapantuvarali S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3 10 Natakapriya S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N2 46 Shadvidhamargini S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2 11 Kokilapriya S R1 G2 M1 D2 N3 47 Suvarnangi S R1 … Skill in the Conduct of Quarrels (, Chapter 109. All for free, and available on all devices at SonicHits.com. [169] Similarly, the love story Perunkatai (lit. Live: 0072 Thirukkural Ilangai Jeyaraj Uyar Valluvam Ava Aruthal Part 3 அவா அறுத்தல் பாகம் 3 Even today many scholars wonder how was it possible for Acharya to write so much in a very short life span of 32 years. [200] The chief element of the monument includes a 39-metre-high (128 ft) chariot, a replica of the chariot in the temple town of Thiruvarur, and it contains a life-size statue of Valluvar. However, he translated only the first two books, viz., virtue and wealth, leaving out the book on love because its erotic and sexual nature was deemed by him to be inappropriate for a Christian missionary. … Full details and the latest status, Buy Pure Cold Pressed Oil | Nattu Sakkarai. According to traditional accounts, it was the last work of the third Sangam, and was subjected to a divine test (which it passed). 04/Dec/2020 3:38:00 PM. [217], The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. Historian K. K. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st century CE. 2. A more scholarly version of this commentary was published by Krisnamachariyar in 1965. Tributes to Tirukkural: A compilation. [66] There are two distinct meanings for every couplet, namely, a structural one and a proverbial one. [33] There is negligible authentic information available about Valluvar's life. However, Drew translated only 630 couplets, and the remaining were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary. [47][48] The three parts that the Kural is divided into, namely, aṟam (virtue), poruḷ (wealth) and inbam (love), aiming at attaining veedu (ultimate salvation), follow, respectively, the four foundations of Hinduism, namely, dharma, artha, kama and moksha. [13][14][15] It also includes chapters on friendship, love, sexual union, and domestic life. [199], The Kural text and its author have been highly venerated over the centuries. [173], According to Thomas Manninezhath – a theology scholar who grew up in South India, the Tirukkural is believed by the natives to reflect Advaita Vedanta philosophy and teaches an "Advaitic way of life". The best known among these are the commentaries by Parimelalhagar, Kaalingar, and Manakkudavar. Both Valluvar and Confucius focused on the behaviors and moral conducts of a common person. [185][j], The Kural does not appear to have been set in music by Valluvar. (n.d.). "[70] There are no structural gaps in the text, with every couplet indispensable for the structured whole. [105], The author seldom shows any concern as to what similes and superlatives he used earlier while writing on other subjects, purposely allowing for some repetition and mild contradictions in ideas one can find in the Kural text. [11][a] In addition, it highlights truthfulness, self-restraint, gratitude, hospitality, kindness, goodness of wife, duty, giving, and so forth,[12] besides covering a wide range of social and political topics such as king, ministers, taxes, justice, forts, war, greatness of army and soldier's honor, death sentence for the wicked, agriculture, education, abstinence from alcohol and intoxicants. According to V. Ramasamy, "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as 'the sea of miserable life' and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as 'sea of this birth' which has been translated by others as 'the sea of many births'. [83][84] The text is a comprehensive pragmatic work that presents philosophy in the first part, political science in the second and poetics in the third. Thirunavukkarasu, K. D. (1973). 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM. [88][99] A king and his army must always be ready for war, and should launch a violent offensive, at the right place and right time, when the situation so demands and particularly against weak and corrupt kingdoms. Quarrels (, Chapter 113 10 ] it Soon became a popular and the government of Nadu... Six have survived into the modern era commentary on the Kural this commentary has been widely and... Christian ethics trust -karka dot in 49,876 views 2:42:31 Uyar Valluvam is an oft-quoted Tamil work be... 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